金属セパレータと燃料電池

金属セパレータとは金属で作られた分断を行うための
板状の物である。
金属セパレータの主な使い道は近年話題にもなっている
燃料電池であり、この燃料電池の進歩への需要は高まり
つつある。

燃料電池とは物質同士の化学的な反応によって生じる
エネルギーを取り出す電池であり、近年では水素と酸素を
用いた燃料電池が注目の的となっている。
水素を用いた燃料電池は水素と酸素を反応させて水を
生成し、水を生成する過程で発生するエネルギーを取り
出す電池だ。この電池の最大の特徴は、最終的に発生
する物質が水であるため、非常に環境に優しく、なおかつ
燃料が水素という生産が難しくない物質であるために、
次世代の車への利用が検討されている。

金属セパレータは分断を行うための物であるということは
冒頭で説明をしたが、一体、何と何を分断するのだろうか。
水素を用いた燃料電池で分断が必要な物は、水素と酸素
である。セパレータによる分断を行わないとするならば、
水素と酸素は一気に反応を起こし、その発生するエネルギー
量を安定させることは出来ないだろう。電池の名を持つ
以上は電力を貯め、安定して電気を供給させる必要が
あるのだ。

つまり、燃料電池においてのセパレータの役目は燃料
電池の水素と酸素を分断し、反応を起こしたい量だけの
反応を起こし続けるための装置である。
金属セパレータに求められる一番の性質は錆に対
する耐性」である。なぜならば、燃料電池は酸素と水素
のみで発電を行う関係上、酸素によって錆が生じる
可能性が高い。

燃料電池は化学反応によってエネルギーを取り出す
ということは先に説明したが、反応が起きるのは何も
水素と酸素だけではない、金属にも例外なく反応は
起こるのだ。ゆえに、金属表面を保護しなければ、
酸素によって酸化された金属になってしまい、耐久性
は著しく落ちてしまうだろう。また、セパレータ自身の
耐久性も重要だ。燃料電池の主な使い道は自動車の
動力源であり、ドライブに耐えうる耐久性は当然求
められるだろう。金属セパレータの技術は日進月歩
あり、今も多くの企業で開発が行われている。
この金属セパレータの開発こそが、燃料電池の未来を
左右するだろう。

 

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